Scientific Program

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Amy Greeson

CEO, Natural Discoveries, Inc., USA

Keynote: Exploration and the Search for Novel Compounds: The Race Against Time

Time : 10:00-10:45

Biography:

Amy Greeson, Rph is CEO of Natural Discoveries, Inc., a drug discovery, research company. Greeson has traveled extensively internationally exploring remote regions, collecting specimens and teaming with researchers in efforts to discover novel compounds. Specimen Collections have come from some of the most bio-diverse regions of planet earth and from areas which often have no documentation of the flora or fauna, or the medicinal use of plants. A graduates of UNC-Chapel Holl, she presently serves as an Alumini Board Member of the UNC-CH Eshelman School of pharmacy. As an integrative pharmacist, Greeson is work in remote bio-diverse countries with indigenous people, searching for novel medical treatments, has attracted interviews with NPR on several occasions, Australian Public Radio, and numerous articles and other press. Her book, and the silent spoke, will be released in 2018, while Expedition Cong, a documentary based on the 2016 expedition to the Congo is slated to debut in early 2018

 

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous medicinal plants have served and continue to serve a critical role in the development of pharmaceuticals and therapeutic agents. As indigenous groups and their lands diminish, so do the knowledge and wisdom of centuries-old treatments. The diminished numbers of healers in remote regions and the loss of knowledge of traditional medicine has been observed especially over the past three years (2015 to 2017). The sharp decline emphasizes the need for increased efforts in preservation and sustainability and for an immediacy in increased plant collections for scientific study.

Methods: 11 healers were observed over a seven year period in remote regions of Papua New Guinea and Madagascar. Traditional medicines and methods had never before been shared with the outside world. Healers (all male) had been taught by their fathers, who had been taught by their fathers, and so on. Ages ranged from mid-twenties to early eighties. Written documentation was accompanied by extensive video footage.

Findings: The loss and destruction of land, tribal fighting, death, and movement towards western ways of life have resulted in depletion of natural resources, disputes over natural resources, loss of information being shared, and devaluation of ancestral ways. Healers and villages, however, with interest in cultivation and harvesting their natural resources were observed to be more protective of their land while eager for collaborations to utilize the resources.

Conclusions: Loss of healers, indigenous communities, and natural resources threaten the potential for future therapeutic agents. Enhanced explorations and collaborations with indigenous healers and villages as well as increased study and analysis of specimens are imperative in utilizing the knowledge, wisdom and resources before they are lost forever.!

Keynote Forum

Elvira Gaspar

New University of Lisbon, Portugal

Keynote: Effects of cooking process on the chemical composition and functional properties of sweet potato

Time : 14:00-14:45

Biography:

Elvira Gaspar has completed her PhD from New University of Lisbon in 1994. Elvira Gaspar currently working as a assistant professor in the New University of Lisbon is well known for her research in areas of Analytical and green chemistry. She completed her Doctoral research working at Faculty of Sciences and Technology in University of Lisbon. Since 1984, she has been Regent and Professor of different disciplines of Chemistry Department of Faculty of Science and Technology of New University of Lisbon including Organic Chemistry, Chemical Information and Documentation. She is also serving as a member of Scientific Board of Brazilian publication: Orbital - The Electronic Journal of Chemistry. Elvira has been active many of the well known chemical societies and associations. She has also worked for a start up, Airmarkers a new medical screening methodologies company, proof of concept.

Abstract:

Worldwide, sweet potato is considered the sixth most important food crop. Alongside with its nutritional value, it is also recognized as a healthy and functional food due to the bioactive compounds present in its chemical composition. Lira is a variety of sweet potato cultivated in south Portugal, Aljezur. It is considered a product of Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) due to its distinctive features, longstanding tradition of cultivation and the fact that it is grown in a specific region of production.

The consumption of sweet potato is essentially undertaken after being cooked. The characteristic aroma is chemically dominated by the presence of furan derived compounds produced by Maillard reaction. This work involved the qualitative and quantitative study of aroma composition in order to compare the effect of cooking processes – baking, boiling and microwaving – on chemical composition and some functional properties of sweet potato.

Using headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis, 2-furaldeyde, 2-acetylfuran, benzaldehyde, 5-methylfurfural, phenylacetaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol were identified in the aromas of cooked Lira sweet potato. Differences of composition and content were shown to be dependent on the cooking process.

The study illustrates how food processing may change chemical composition of food.  Because humans are what they eat, the study contributes to verify how cooking choices may influence human health and well-being.

 

  • Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Speaker
Biography:

Olivier Behra is the founder of the Net Positive Impact program. He spent 20 years on the island of Madagascar where he create the experimental protected area of Vohimana in the mid altitude rainforest. His approach was to involve local communities into socio economic activities especially enhancing the value of natural resources. Behra helped to develop cosmetic active ingredients produced by local communities by the side of the primary forest for different brands including large ones like Chanel and Yves Rocher and his author of different scientific publication. He advised the author of the book (in French) "Essential oils of Madagascar, uses and clinical results".

Abstract:

Biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate. This is compromising potential development of new drugs and cosmetics. It is also posing a threat on local health in developing countries as traditional healers lose their natural pharmacy and as local people are often too poor to afford other drugs.  The island of Madagascar is a special case having lost already 80% of its forest cover although scientists recognize the island hosts more than 1000 medicinal plants found nowhere else on earth. It is urgent to enhance the value of a traditional medicinal plant to generate interest for their conservation.

An experimental program has been launch 15 years ago to test the potential to develop the use of Cinnamosma fragrans, a medicinal plant then only know to the local populations of western Madagascar. Its essential oil has been extracted. Test conducted by aroma-therapists showed very interesting potential and it is now on the market. A next step has been to involve a large cosmetic brand to conduct laboratory research (angiogenesis properties have been demonstrated) and the essential oil has been used in two main brand cosmetic products.

After the demonstration of non toxicity of the product two blend have been made using Saro essential oils for use in local hospitals. One to treat post operation wounds and the other to treat skin diseases. Clinical trial on 503 circumcision showed on average 5 days less for cicatrisation with 10 to 25 times less infections*. 104 cases of dermatological problems treated with the blend including Saro essential oil have also been documented bringing results equivalent or better that what could have been obtained with classic treatment which are either non available in rural areas or too expensive for patients. 

  • Psychoactive Compounds from Plants

Session Introduction

Deanna Callahan

Founder & CEO at Root Essential, USA

Title: Cannabis Medicine Enters an Era Of Legitimacy.
Speaker
Biography:

Deanna founded Root Essential, a consulting firm that provides compliance and permitting guidance, IP and product development services to companies in the commercial cannabis industry. Prior to founding Root Essential, Deanna led a multimillion-dollar cannabis extraction lab in the role of Chief Production Officer. In this role, Deanna oversaw production and quality control of medicinal cannabis products as well as a non-profit branch of the company, that provided medicine to patients with cancer or in remission at no cost. Through this experience, Deanna gained valuable insight into the extraction methods utilized in the production of medicinal cannabis products and the experiences of patients treating their ailments with those products. In the last seven years, Deanna has also served in roles ranging from cultivator of cannabis to patient caregiver, providing guidance in dosage, administration and therapeutic treatment of patient ailments through cannabis medicine.

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to provide insight into the production of medicinal cannabis consumer products and the therapeutic applications of those products. The presentation will focus on products and patients in the California medical cannabis market. In the presentation, a high level overview will be provided, describing the process of developing consumer cannabis products, from cannabis extraction techniques through to product development and the therapeutic applications of those products. The compliance measures responsible operators must take, in order to protect public safety, will be highlighted throughout.

The presentation will describe the processes used in the development of concentrated tinctures, capsules, vaporizer pens, suppositories and infused foods. These processes include; extracting cannabinoids from cannabis plant material, refining the resulting concentrated cannabis oils, and formulating and infusing consumer products. Specific cannabis extraction techniques discussed in the presentation will include; steam distillation of cannabis essential oils, extraction of cannabinoids through use of ethanol as a solvent, extraction of cannabinoids using butane as a solvent, refinement techniques including winterization, filtration, purging, rotary evaporation, distillation using a molecular still, and terpene infusion. Other processes discussed include primary and secondary packaging of cannabis products. Finally, the therapeutic applications of these products will be described at a high level. Therapeutic applications to be discussed include; the use of cannabis products in the treatment of, rheumatoid arthritis and other auto-immune disorders, chemotherapy symptoms in cancer patients, epilepsy and seizure disorders, chronic pain and even drug addiction.

 

  • Young Researchers Forum
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Objectives: Osteoarthritis is a progressively debilitating, inflammatory disorder of synovial joints. As knee is the most affected synovial joint, the maximum research has been carried out on osteoarthritis of knee (KOA). Long term therapy with NSAIDs/Steroids is used for the treatment of KOA, but, due to the associated serious side effect of these drugs, the alternative system of therapies are need of hour. Hence, we planned to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Curcuma longa (CL) extract in the patients of KOA.

Results: The study has proved that long term therapy of KOA with CL extract as an adjuvant with diclofenac provides significant (p<0.05) improvement in pain and relief in discomfort as analysed through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC).

There was improvement in the level of anti-inflammatory biomarker IL-10 and MMP-9 as compared to placebo. Further, the level of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase and Catalase also showed improvement in CL extract group as compared to placebo group. Similarly, Uric acid levels also showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in CL extract group as compared to placebo group.

Conclusion: The improvement in WOMAC and VAS may be subjective; however, the levels of biomarkers are certain objective parameters which confirm the status of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of CL extract in KOA patients. 

  • Herbal Pharmacology
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Objective: The study investigated hypoglycaemic effect of Abrus precatorius leaf extract (APLE) and its possible mechanisms of action by using in vivo and in vitro models. 

Results: At the end of 28 days post STZ/NIC treatment, cumulatively APLE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the initial FBG by 55.22, 76.15 and 77.77 % respectively) compared to model (-1.04 %) and metformin (72.29 %) groups. APLE increased median cross-sectional area (x106 μm2) of pancreatic islets compared to that of model group. APLE produced dose-dependent decrease in immune cell infiltration relative to model group.  Generally APLE (400 mg/kg; 5.21 ± 0.02 AscAE μg/mL) produced significant (P < 0.05) plasma ascorbic acid equivalent (AscAE μg/mL) TAC compared to model (4.06 ± 0.04 AscAE μg/mL) and metformin (4.87 ± 0.03 AscAE μg/mL) groups. APLE produced concentration-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase activity at an IC50 of 33.89 ± 0.06 μg/mL comparable to that of acarbose standard at an IC50 37.10 ± 0.45 μg/mL. APLE produced concentration-dependent DPPH scavenging activity though lower in potency compared to ascorbic acid.

Conclusion: APLE produced hypoglycemic effect in STZ/NIC-induced hyperglycemic rats possibly mediated through inhibition of α-glucosidase activity; increased free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities as well as amelioration of pancreatic islet atrophy. 

  • Importance of Natural Compounds in Medicine

Session Introduction

Diana Marie Dummer

Independent Consultant at Natural Products Industry, USA

Title: Can You Pronounce It? Natural Compounds in Daily Life are Better Alternatives to Synthetic Ones
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The presentation will focus on natural medicines:  Plant Medicine, Natural Supplements, and Organic Foods.  Daily management and prevention for acute and chronic conditions will be addressed.  The presentation includes informative slides, a pronunciation of ”Notice This on Labels” lesson, and a Smile-For-Health Session.

The advantages to natural compounds vs. synthetic ones will be discussed.  This will include the simple, non-invasive and effective non-toxic use of natural compounds for nutritional support and whole body maintenance.  Emphasis will be placed on the effective, accessible, economical, and safe use, with minimal interactions, of these natural compounds vs. synthetic ones; safe for humankind, animals, water, earth and air.

Specific examples of herbal medicines and supplements for the following common ailments will be included:  Inflammatory conditions, digestive and respiratory disorders, mental health maladies and stress. 

Additional measures will be emphasized:  The 5 Best Daily Natural Medicines for maintenance and prevention.  The presentation concludes with A Smile Session.

 

  • Young Researchers Forum
Speaker
Biography:

Fatemeh Malekdar is a research assistant at the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Her main research interests are in FMD virus. She is currently working on a MSc thesis on the Designing Indirect ELISA Test for Detection of Antibodies against Serotype A2013 and O2010 of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus in Cattle.The research is supervised by Professor Homayoon Mahravani in FMD department.

Abstract:

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Virus is a contagious animal disease that causes irreparable damage to the economy of a country, including Iran where the disease is native in that. Among the ways to combat against FMD is vaccination and slaughter. Because of the specific situation of Iran, it is not possible to kill infected animals. Therefore, the most important way to fight the disease is to vaccinate. The methods used to evaluate the safety and determine the titer of antibody in a serum are mainly SNT and ELISA. In this research, designing an indirect ELISA test based on coating of complete particle of viral 140S particle makes it possible to determine antibody and following that determining serotype and viral type without need for time-consuming and complex molecular tasks, including gene expression. In addition, in the event of a new epidemic, a new epidemic condition can be detected by using serum antibody method. However, coating complete viral particle leads us to need virus purification as well as the anti-immunoglobulin conjugate antibody testing of the same animal. In this study, SNT test was used as a Gold Test to determine the serum antibody level and comparing its results with indirect ELISA method to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indirect ELISA test for measuring the anti-virus antibody rate of type (A2013&O2010) FMD through ROC analysis with 100% sensitivity and the specificity of 90% sensitivity using routine formulas with 100 % sensitivity and specificity of 82%.

In this study, considering Cut off OD = 0.3, there was a significant difference between the vaccinated animals and the unvaccinated animals in terms of antibody level against the A2013and

O2010 type. This indicates the correctness of the test and the accurate and proportional antibody detection against the under study viral types of FMD.

 

  • Separation and Purification of Natural Compounds
Speaker
Biography:

Gaurav Rajauria is a Natural Product Chemist at University College Dublin (UCD), Ireland. His primary research interest aims at mining and characterizing functional ingredients from underutilized marine resources and food waste-streams. One of his research interests relate to the investigation of greener extraction techniques for bioactives from natural sources. His research also focuses on improving quality of meat, milk, eggs and other farm animal products by formulating animal diets with functional ingredients. He has edited books in food science, his patented technology has garnered attention nationally (Irish Research Council) and internationally (MIT, USA). His research is published in various books and peer-reviewed journals, and is regularly presented at national and international conferences. He is a member of Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) and Phytochemical Society of Europe.

 

Abstract:

Seaweed or macroalgae are fast gaining a reputation as untapped potential sustainable source of bioactive compounds. They harbor some highly valuable compounds such as phlorotannins, fucoxanthin, carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan which are exclusive to seaweed only. These bioactive have shown multiple health beneficial properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, ant-tumor, anti-viral and anti-oxidant activities in both “in vitro” and “in vivo” systems. However, for successful analysis of these bioactives an integrated approach for characterization is required. This study explored step by step characterization (extraction, screening, purification and structure elucidation) of some exclusive bioactive phlorotannins and fucoxanthin together with their potential antioxidant activity from Himanthalia elongata seaweed. Phlorotannins (polyphenol) were extracted with aqueous methanol and the crude extract was purified with liquid–liquid partition followed by column chromatography and solid phase extraction. Fucoxanthin (lipid) was extracted with low polarity solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether and chloroform) and the crude extract was purified with preparative thin layer chromatography. The quantification of both purified compounds were carried out by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP–HPLC) coupled to a diode array detector (DAD), while their Identification was performed by LCDAD-ESI-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis revealed the recovery of 394.1±4.33 µg/g phloroglucinol and 434.1±2.13 µg/g fucoxanthin. The fragmentation pattern confirmed that the purified fractions contained phlorotannins (m/z 125 [M-H-CO]¯) and fucoxanthin (m/z 641 [M+H-H2O]+) as the major compounds respectively. Antioxidant activity results revealed that phlorotannins exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher DPPH scavenging capacity (EC50; 14.5±0.57 mg/g) than the ascorbic acid (EC50; 35.8±0.59 mg/g) while fucoxanthin showed statistically similar (p>0.05) DPPH scavenging capacity (EC50: 12.9±1.04 μg/mL) as the commercial fucoxanthin (EC50: 13.4±1.08 μg/mL). The promising results of phlorotannin and fucoxanthin purity, recovery and antioxidant activity can constitute a new move in the understanding of the health benefits of seaweed, and can be considered as substantial alternate for functional ingredients in food and medicinal preparations.

 

  • Role of natural compounds in drug discovery

Session Introduction

Ahmed M. Mustafa

University of Zagazig, Egypt

Title: Role of natural compounds in drug discovery
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Natural products are products from various natural sources, plants, microbes and animals. Natural products can be an entire organism (e.g. a plant, an animal or a micro- organism), a part of an organism (e.g. leaves or flowers of a plant, an isolated animal organ), an extract of an organism or part of an organism, or pure compound (e.g. alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and terpenoids) isolated from plants, animals or micro- organisms.  ¢Nature has been a potential source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years. Over the last century, a number of top selling drugs have been developed from natural products.  Example : ¢Anticancer drug Vincristine from Vinca rosea, narcotic analgesic Morphine from Papaver somniferum, antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua, anticancer drug Taxol from Taxus brevifolia and antibiotic Penicillins from Penicillium ssp. are just a few examples. 

In modern drug discovery and development processes, natural products play an important role at the early stage of ‘lead’ discovery, i.e. discovery of the active natural molecule, which itself or its structural analogues could be an ideal drug candidate. There are at least 2,50,000 species of higher plants that exist on this planet, but merely five to 10 per cent have been investigated so far.

There are two ways of Drug discovery i) The Traditional way,  ii) The Modern processes.  

i) THE TRADITIONAL WAY, the extract is fractionated and the active compound is isolated and identified. ¢Every step of fractionation and isolation is usually guided by bioassays, and the process is called bioassay-guided isolation. However, the process can be slow, inefficient and labor intensive.  

ii) THE MODERN PROCESSES ¢  involve HTS, where, applying full automation and robotics, hundreds of molecules can be screened using several assays within a short time, and with very little amounts of compounds. ¢In order to incorporate natural products in the modern HTS programmes, a natural product library (a collection of dereplicated natural products) needs to be built. Dereplication is the process by which one can eliminate recurrence or re- isolation of same or similar compounds from various extracts.  A number of hyphenated techniques are used for Dereplication, e.g. LC-PDA (liquid chromatography–photo-diode- array detector),  LC-MS (liquid chromatography–mass detector) and LC-NMR (liquid chromatography – nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Now, it is possible to build a ‘high quality’ and ‘chemically diverse’ natural product library that can be suitable for any modern HTS programmes. ¢Natural product libraries can also be of crude extracts, chromatographic fractions or semi-purified compounds. However, the best result can be obtained from a fully identified pure natural product library as it provides scientists with the opportunity to handle the ‘lead’ rapidly for further developmental work.  

To continue, the focus must be on exploiting newer approaches for natural product drug discovery e.g. the application of genomic tools, seeking novel sources of organisms from the environment, new screening technologies and improved processes of sample preparation for screening samples. 

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Manal Mortady

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt

Keynote: Antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxic activities of bioactive compounds isolated from Pittosporum eugenioides

Time : 09:30-10:15

Biography:

Manal Mortady is a Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) from 2017 to till now. She had done her PhD in Organic Chemistry at Cairo University. Manal is a member at Egyptian Society of Natural Toxins and also a member in other 9 societies. She published 30 research papers. She is editorial board member for International Journals of : The Public Science Framework and The Journal of Harmonized Research Publications.

Abstract:

Our study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of methanolic, ethyl acetate extracts and pure isolates of P. eugenioides against brine shrimps and HepG-2 cell lines using MTT assay. Qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out to detect the phytochemical constituents in the methanol extract; as well as its total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) for the tested extracts were performed. Furthermore, TFC of the plant extracts was ranged from 32.40 to 310.15 mg RE / g dry extract and TPC of the tested extracts was ranged from 212.59 to 840.73 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract. Moreover the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was ranged from 185 to 567.33 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g dry extract. The antioxidant activity was evaluated qualitatively using DPPH method, thus revealed that the butanol extract record the strongest and potent free radical scavenging one among the tested extracts with SC50 value of 26.38 μg/ml. Ten compounds were isolated from the n-butanol extract of P. eugenioides, they were identified as; 3-O-[α - L- arabinofuranosyl - (1→3) - α - L - rhamnopyranosyl (1→2) - α - L- arabinopyranosyl ] hederagenin) 1), 3 β - 4β - 15, 16, 22 - trihydroxy olean 12-en-17 oic acid (2), rutin (3),  isoquercitrin (4),  Eudesmine (5), (2S,3S,4E,6S,7R,8R,9S,11E,13S, 14S,15R)- 7,8,9,14,15-pentaacetoxy-3-(benzoyloxy)-6-hydroxyjatropha-4,11-diene (6), β- Amyrin (7), limonene (8), α pinene (9) and kanesulone A (10). Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed the promising free radical scavenging activity SC50 value of 1.28, 3.21, 5.40 and 7.09μg/ml, respectively. Also, compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps (Artemia salina L.). In, conclusion P. eugenioides leaves showed a potent antioxidant & cytotoxic activities that guided to be useful for developing the plant for potential therapeutic liver cancer treatments.

 

Keynote Forum

Radhakrishnan Krishnan Nair

CEO, State Medicinal Plants Board, India

Keynote: Relevance of Ethnomedicine with special reference to Kerala State,India

Time : 14:00-14:45

Biography:

Krishnan Nair Radhakrishnan had his BSc and MSc degrees in first class in Botany from the University of Kerala, conferred honorary Doctor of Science by the Open International University for Complimentary Medicines, Colombo, Srilanka, for significant achievements in the field of humanitarian studies, obtained certificate in Business English (BEC 2) of the Cambridge University, U.K. He started his research carrier as Junior Research Fellow in the All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Ethnobiology (AICRPE) sponsored by the Department of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India at Regional Research Institute (Drug Research) Thiruvananthapuram during 1988-1992. Presently he is the Chief Executive Officer in Charge since August 2016. He had published 24 scientific papers in various International / National journels and books. In addition he had also 8 popular articles to his credit and 1 patent and involved in 6 projects. He is a Life member and Executive Committee member of 18 professional bodies. Some of the notable ones are Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy (IAAT), Calicut, and Fellow IAAT (FIAT) and former Executive Council Member, Society of Ethnobotanists (SEB) Lucknow, and Fellow (FES) and Nodal Officer for Kerala, Kerala Academy of Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram, formerly Joint Secretary , National Institute of Ecology, New Delhi, National Environmental Science Academy (NESA), New Delhi, Fellow, International Benevolent Research Forum (FIBR) Nagpur, Zoroastrain College, Mumbai, Life member Organization for Industrial, Spiritual and Cultural Advancement (OISCA International) Tokyo, Japan, Thiruvananthapuram chapter, Association for Plant Taxonomy(APT) Lucknow and India International Friendship Society, New Delhi.

Abstract:

Not Yet Submitted

  • Herbal Pharmacology
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The study assessed anti-microbial activity of three extract fractions of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaf against three selected oral pathogens (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Candida albicans).

RESULTS: The extract fractions produced concentration-dependent inhibition of growth. Except in the case of Lactobacillus acidophilus where growth inhibitory effect of the extract fractions was lower compared to standard antibiotic (ciprofloxacin), for the remaining pathogens, the extract fractions produced comparable growth inhibitory effects at lower (in the case of Candida albicans) and higher (in the case of Aggregatibacter actinomytemcomitans) concentrations relative to standard antibiotics (Amoxacillin & Metronidazole and Fluconazole). The extract fractions had varied MICs relative to vehicle (ethanol) and standard antibiotics with respect to the three oral pathogens. The extract fractions had higher MICs compared to control and standard antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) with respect to Lactobacillus acidophilus. However, except EEZZ the remaining extract fractions (PEEZZ and EAEZZ) had low MICs compared to control and standard antibiotics in the case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In the case of Candida albicans, EEZZ had a lower MIC compared to fluconazole, while both PEEZZ and EAEZZ had high MICs compared to fluconazole. From the IC50 (μg/mL) values the potency of the drugs against L. acidophilus in decreasing order were CIPRO – 0.701 ± 0.104; PEEZZ – 1.099 x 105 EAEZZ –172.8 x 105; EEZZ – 26.96 x 105 , ethanol – 9.717 x 1011. The potency pattern based on IC50 (μg/mL) values of the treatments against A. actinomycetemcomitans in decreasing order were PEEZZ > Met & Amox > EEZZ > EAEZZ > ethanol. Potency based on IC50 (μg/mL) values of treatments against C. albicans were not different from that of the other two oral pathogens.

CONCLUSION:  Z. zanthoxyloides leaf extracts have anti-microbial activity against the three studied oral pathogens, thus, it can be explored for active anti-microbial agents against oral infections in which the studied pathogens may be implicated.

 

  • Psychoactive Compounds from Plants

Session Introduction

Diana Marie Dummer

Independent Consultant at Natural Products Industry, USA

Title: The Bliss System: The ABC’s of Endocannabinoids, Phytocannabinoids, Cannabis and Chocolate!
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

What is Bliss?  How is it produced?  And what are the precursors necessary for us to experience it?

In this workshop, the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, basic understandings of its role in human physiology and its contribution towards health and homeostasis of the body will be discussed.   Though only recently discovered, history has displayed the workings of it via treatments of this system with plant therapeutics.  Phytocannabinoids and their service to the endocannabinoid system are explained.

Preclinical trials over the past four decades have found that the cannabinoids show promise as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, neuroprotectant, anxiolytic, just to name a few. Further mention of these natural compounds and their actions will be explored.  New data, current findings and phyto-therapies of Cannabis spp., cacao, and other botanicals, and exogenous compounds will be presented. 

  • Natural compounds for Various Diseases

Session Introduction

Manal Hamed

Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt

Title: The biological activity of Conocarpus erectus extracts and their applications as cytotoxic agents
Speaker
Biography:

Manal Mortady is a Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) from 2017 to till now. She had done her PhD in Organic Chemistry at Cairo University. Manal is a member at Egyptian Society of Natural Toxins and also a member in other 9 societies. She published 30 research papers. She is editorial board member for International Journals of : The Public Science Framework and The Journal of Harmonized Research Publications.

 

 

Abstract:

Essential oils are found to have multiple active components which can show in vitro cytotoxic action against various cancerous cell lines. This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) growing wild in Egypt. Water-distilled essential oil of C. erectus was examined for its cytotoxic effects using a modified brine shrimp and MTT assays. Fresh leaves aerial part of C. erectus was subjected to hydro distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatusvolatile to obtain its volatile oil. Cytotoxicity of the essential oil was measured against HepG2 cancer cells and brine shrimps larva. The essential oil 50% cytotoxic concentrations were found to be 33µg/ml and 8.7µg/ml against brine shrimp and human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line, respectively; thus the volatile oil displayed good cytotoxic action against the human tumor cell line. Moreover, C. erectus methanol extract was very effective; it exhibited cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larva within IC50 value of 15µg/ml. The investigation from GC Mass, led to the identification of 12 constituents, representing 97.53% of the total oil, of which  the major chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as being rich in 3-(2,2 dimethylpropylid ene)bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4-dione (3) (67.12%), (decanoic acid derevatives (11) (7.77%), 22-tritetracontanone (12) (6.03%), 1-octanol, 2-butyl- (2) (5.51%) and oleic acid (6) (4.33%). This is the first report on anticancer potential and separation of essential oils from Cerectus.  The findings of this study necessitate the need for further consideration of this essential oil in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy.

 

Ping Chin Lee

Associate Professor, Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Title: Anti-Parasitic Activity of Malaysian Fern
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Gleichenia truncate (Willd.) is a fern and is known for its traditional used to alleviate fever among the indigenous communities in Asia.  This study evaluated the crude extracts of this fern for anti-parasitic activity. The leaves of G. truncate were collected and grounded a powder.  It was then soaked overnight in 99.9% (v/v) methanol, at a ratio of 1:5 (v/v). The extracts were filtered and concentrated using a rotary evaporator to yield concentrated crude methanolic extract of the plant. The crude methanolic extract was tested on growth inhibitory assay using Plasmodium falciparum, an agent causing malaria. We have used a murine malarial infection model to perform the assay. G. truncate methanolic extract showed growth inhibitory activity against the parasite P. falciparum. Further fractionation and purification of the extract had suggested the presence of p-coumaric acid methyl ester. The finding provide scientific basis for the

ethnomedicinal use of G. truncate to treat malaria.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Objectives:  Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease that affects the multiple joints in symmetric pattern. The worldwide prevalence of RA is about 1% while in India it is approximately 0.75%. The current therapy for RA includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and some recently developed biologic agents but all of these are associated with adverse effects. Some herbal drugs such as Boswellia serrata has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. So in order to develop a safer alternative therapy for RA, we planned this study to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats.

Results: BSE at dose 180 mg/kg showed significant improvement in body weight and decrease in ankle diameter, paw thickness and arthritic index (p<0.05), however, there was insignificant change in paw volume (p=0.056). This improvement was comparable with Indomethacin. The level of TNF-α did not show any significant change (p=0.076). Histopathological results also exhibited reduction in inflammatory parameters.  

Conclusion: BSE might have a usefulness as an adjunct to conventional therapy of RA.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Inflammation plays a key role in ischemic neuronal injury. Propolis is a polyphenol-rich hive product with a set of biological activities.The aim of this study was to investigatethe effect of Brown Propolis (BP) on stroke outcome and inflammatory response in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Experimentally, the water extracts of propolis (WEPs) were obtained from two regions of Iran. The chemical characterization and total polyphenol content were determined using GC-MS and Folin–Ciocalteu assay respectively.Sixty-six adult male mice were randomly divided into the surgical sham group, control group (treated with vehicle), and four groups of WEPs-treated animals. WEPs were administered at the doses of 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i.p.), during four different time points. TNF-α level, infarct volume and brain edema were measured48 h post stroke.Behavioral tests were evaluated 4 and 48 h after stroke.

Samples were not substantially different in concentration of the total polyphenol content. In all treatment groups, WEPs treatment resulted in significant reduction of the TNF-α level and the subsequent decrease in infarct volume and brain edema compared to the control group. Sensory-motor impairment and neurological deficits were also improved significantlyas well.

Our finding showed that brown propolis reduces ischemic brain damage perhaps by exerting a neuroprotective effect on the stroke-induced neuroinflammatory responses.

 

  • Importance of Natural Compounds in Medicine
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

AIM: To develop and characterize Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract-loaded niosomes using nonionic surfactants, and to evaluate their antidiabetic activity against the leaf extract. Nonionic surfactant-based G. sylvestre leaf extract-loaded niosomes were developed using the thin-film hydration technique. The niosomal formulation was optimized by using RSM (Box Bhengan design). The optimized formulation was screened for their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and Entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis TEM and FTIR for their functional group.  Niosomes prepared using Span™ 40 & Span 60 provided sterically stable vesicles 138.8 nm in size with zeta-potential and entrapment efficiency of 150.86 mV and 85.3 ± 4.5%, respectively. The surface morphology of vesicles was confirmed to be spherical by scanning electron microscopy studies. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the advantages of G. sylvestre leaf extract-loaded niosomes, and justifies the potential of niosomes for improving the efficacy of G. sylvestre extract as antidiabetic.

 

  • Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, belongs to the family Solanaceae and commonly known as Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng and Winter cherry is one of the major medicinal plant and extensively used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Ashwagandha roots are important ingredients for various form of herbal medicine are prepared, that reason about due to the presence of natural antioxidant constituents and clinically important active bioactive compounds. In the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the non-enzymatic antioxidant constituents of Withania somnifera under the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and triazole compounds viz., triadimefon (TDM) and propiconazole (PCZ). Plants were treated with IBA 2.5 mgL-1, TDM 20 mgL-1 and PCZ 20 mgL-1 separately by soil drenching on 50, 90 and 130 days after sowing (DAS). Plants were analyzed on 60, 100 and 140 DAS and its non-enzymatic antioxidants constituents such as reduced glutathione, riboflavin and total flavonoids content were determined. It was observed that IBA, TDM and PCZ treatments significantly increased the non-enzymatic antioxidants content when compared to control. Among the treatments, TDM and PCZ caused pronounced effects to increased higher level when compared to IBA treatment. This finding suggests that, the triazole compounds shows great significant for enhanced the antioxidants production in medicinally important root crop of Ashwagandha.